Excerpts From Searching For Alternatives Book
    •  Preface

       

      I have known Nancy Atakan from her first days in Turkey when I was about twelve or thirteen years old.  For me, she has been both a family acquaintance and a colleague, both a friend and an artist.  We worked together for years at Robert College as well as shared our careers as artists.

       

      In 1991, she started research for a doctoral degree. She wanted to write her thesis on a topic that had not been researched yet in Turkey, a subject that would benefit the art world.  As for myself, I had finished the Fine Arts Academy and jointed the Art Definition Group (STT)’s Conceptual Art studies.  Nancy became interested in and also joined STT.  In this way, she strengthened her interest in Conceptual Art and new approaches in art after she decided on this direction for her research.  Until this time, Nancy had used collage and montage techniques in her paintings to add layers to their surfaces.  Now she would move on to a new phase in her art career. By researching contemporary techniques and concepts, new avenues would open for her while she also alleviated a need in the Turkish art community.

       

      Between 1991 and 1995, we worked together at STT.  For her, this work gave an opportunity to gain in-depth theoretical and practical knowledge about contemporary art’s milestone, Conceptual Art. She finished her thesis by researching mainly Conceptual Art, but also Process Art, Fluxus, Performance Art, Happenings, Earth Art, Body Art, Actions, and Arte Povera.  As for this book, it came later as a result of our encouragement and insistence.  During those years, with the exception of a few translated articles in some journals, books on this topic could not be found.  After working for a long while to edit her thesis, in 1998 this book was published.  Arayislar (Searching) became a book in great demand by artists, art spectators and in particular art students.  

       

      When available copies could no longer be found, demand for the book continued.  When she received requests, Nancy distributed photocopies of the book.  From this perspective, it is very important that this book will be reprinted.  Today, Contemporary Art has become a course of study in many universities.  Contemporary Art seminars and classes are given in most art centers. Arayislar is an important reference book for these classes.  Another important point is that this topic has only just become popular.  Nancy noticed a need for research on this topic early on and her efforts were not in vain.

       

      Around the time this book was published, Nancy Atakan, Gulcin Aksoy, Nerman Polat, and I, Gul Ilgaz, resigned from STT and as four artists began to share a small studio in Arnavutkoy.  We continued our habit of sharing our art practices as we read, researched, and worked together.  In 1997 at the Ataturk Cultural Center (AKM), we made the exhibition, “ARADA” (BETWEEN).  As well as our personal positions of being in-between, we also referred to the “between-ness” of surface and three-dimensionality and of the state of being and not being a picture.  For us, inherent in our geographical location was an inescapable in-between position.  When we opened this exhibition, not a single gallery knew us and even if they did they would not exhibit our work.  At that time, our artworks were outside the galleries understanding of art.  Therefore, we found our own concepts, our own exhibition space, and made our own catalogue.  With this exhibition, we began to take on every responsibility for our own shows.  As the same four, in our studio in Arnavutkoy in 1998 we opened “Ardarda” (Consecutive) and in 1999 at Taskisla Istanbul Technical University (ITU) we made the exhibition “ARADA ’99”.

       

      In 2000, at the Elhamra Gallery we continued to broaden our efforts with the exhibition “Yerli Mali” (Local Produce) by inviting several other artists to join us.  Later, after Feyyaz Yaman established Karsi Sanat, this gallery became our new exhibition space.  With an even bigger contingent of artists, in this space we realized “Yurttan Sesler” (Voice of our Mother land) in 2001 and “Aileye Mahsustur” (For Families Only) in 2002.  The special characteristic of these exhibitions was the collaboration and communication techniques used among the artists to create the shows.  Of course, we should not forget the support given by Feyyaz Yaman.

       

      Nancy’s tendency towards using dialogue to create an art environment became a common characteristic of her work in these shows.  Most of her work developed out of material collected in this manner.  People could be her family friends, art curators, artists or even taxi drivers. Most of Nancy Atakan’s work involved one-on-one relationship and information collected from these conversations. She used photographs, videos and installation techniques to present her work to spectators.  In all of her work, she never refrained from using her idea that art functions as documentation.   In her opinion, every artwork is essentially a form of documentation.

       

      Actually, this book by Nancy Atakan could be seen as a part of this process.  The section that she has added to this reprint attempts to summarize this topic that she had not included initially. In all sections of the first printing of Arayislar she explained the new directions taken by Western art. She also presented a summary of this type of work by artists living in
      Turkey.  I expect that this new section will lead Nancy Atakan into writing a new book about this topic.  Our responsibility is to encourage her to do this.

       

       

      Gul Ilgaz

      Artist and Art Teacher 

      Written in Istanbul August 2008

       

      SEARCHING FOR ALTERNATIVES

      TO PAINTING AND SCULTURE

      1998

      Nancy Atakan

       

      When retrospectively analyzed, I believe important western art work made in the 1960s and 1970s not only reacted to Formalism, but also continued the questioning of accepted propositions about art begun by the Minimalist, Neo Dada artists, and Pop artists. Artists that I have classified under the titles of Anti-Establishment Actions, Arte Povera, Body Art, Conceptual Art, Earth Art, Fluxus, Happenings, Performance Art, and Process Art viewed together, not only found techniques and materials alternative to painting and sculpture, but also broadened the definition of art as they changed for future generations the role of the artist, the role of the spectator, and the status of the art object. In the 1990s the work from this dynamic period has become meaningful to a younger generation of artists around the world, including Turkey, as they move into the information age and adapt to the changing central/peripheral dialogue. 

       

      Conceptual art defined as a tendency to stress concept over perception and idea over morphology was built on Duchamp's ideas as interpreted and spread by the work of Jasper Johns, Rauschenberg, John Cage, and Merce Cunningham. In some respects it appeared as the natural outcome of work done by the Minimalists. Even though Henry Flint, who was closely related to the Fluxus group, and Edward Kienholz had used the term Concept art previously, Sol LeWitt brought a new meaning to Conceptual Art with his articles, "Sentences on Conceptual Art"  and "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art".  LeWitt emphasized art as idea, art as cognitive function (art as a means to show the function of mental processes), and art as a precisely planned process.  He rejected art as emotional outlet, art as aesthetics, art as form, chance, arbitrary decision, caprice, and taste.

       

      As early as 1969, Joseph Kosuth addressed the issue of clarifying Conceptual art's definition in his article, "Art After Philosophy".  He said, "The 'purest' definition of conceptual art would be that it is inquiry into the foundations of the concept 'art'."[1]  In this article Kosuth separated aesthetics from art and rejected the Formalist approach that analyzed the physical properties of objects in a morphological context.  In his opinion, after Duchamp's readymade, the focus of art changed from a question of morphology to a question of function, in other words, emphasis shifted from appearance to conception.  Kosuth defined art works as analytical propositions, those propositions whose validity depend on the definition of the symbols they contain.  His propositions gave no information about any matter of fact, but existed as tautologies presenting the artist's intention to say that a particular artwork is a definition of art.  In his opinion, the artist who concerns himself with art's conceptual growth and how his art propositions follow this logical growth make art propositions that take on a linguistic character.  Kosuth believed art could be seen as a language based on its own internal terms as well as be analyzed as a study of linguistic philosophy. By 1975, according to Kosuth, Conceptual art's brief life had come to an end as had most of the other movements initiated in the late 1960s.  In fact, Kosuth believed the acceptance of the work by the museums and galleries as well as the misinterpretation of the work by critics writing for art magazines served to bring the period to an end. Having lost belief in the objectivity of the scientific model that he had been using to question the nature of art, Kosuth now turned to an anthropological model.

       

      While each tendency stood out distinctly before 1975, the 1980’s generation of artists looking back on the period could view it in its totality.  Considered jointly, work made by artists working during this dynamic period aimed:

       

          to overthrow the assumptions of powerful art institutions

          to lower the importance of the art object and the idea of art as a commodity

          to question the limits of perception

          to investigate the relationship between image and language

          to separate the concept of art from that of aesthetics

          to question the process/product relationship

          to discover new ways to distribute art work by finding alternatives to the gallery/museum/art magazine system

           to restructure the relationship between art work, artist, and spectator.

       

      The most radical model for future generations came out of the work of the Art & Language group between 1968 and 1975 that brought the possibility of art as continual conversation. By basing their description of the art community and their research goals on Thomas Kuhn's model of scientific revolution, they saw the art community as an art group working and learning together as seriously as scientists in a laboratory and the spectator as an informed member of this group.

       

      In contrast to the rebellious 1960s generation of European and American artists, the younger artists of the 1980s were interested in building a solid career within the system.  Having earned AN advanced university degree, they were not only highly knowledgeable about aesthetic theory, art criticism, and art history, but also the pragmatics of the art world. They knew how to get their work exhibited in galleries, how to read and write art criticism, and how to curate art shows. Many young artists were discovered and recruited by galleries while still in school. 

       

      Many of the aims of the 1960s artists became commonplace for the next generation. By 1980, younger artists knew that artwork did not have to be hand made, but could be done by someone else or manufactured. Lists, diagrams, measurements, descriptions, photographs could be used to document art events. It was now acceptable to use information and systems instead of formal concerns such as composition and elements of design.  They could emphasize process, thought, and action over the finished object.  They could use alternative spaces such as the mail, books, and magazines as well as museums and galleries to distribute and expose their work.  Language about was seen not as art criticism, but as artwork.   Aware of research in semiotics and linguistical philosophy, they knew about the fragile relationship between reality, images, and words.  They knew language could communicate in poetic or political manner and still contain hidden or unintended messages.  By this time, not only had European art centers reclaimed importance from New York, but also groups such as female artists previously seen to be marginal gained strength as diversity of approach, multiple potentialities, and interpretations emerged.   The work of some of the older artists such as Kosuth and Art & Language who had brought about these alternatives changed as they adjusted to this new situation. 

       

      In the 1960s and 1970s a small contingency of Turkish artists started to recognize the emergence in Europe of a stream of thought running counter to the painting and sculpture tradition.  Recognizing this change in the French art situation, placing importance on the French New Realist movement, and feeling the stagnation created by the hegemony of the abstract and figurative hegemony in the Istanbul Fine Arts Academy, Altan Gürman brought Pierre Restany's interpretation of “Art's Other Face” to Turkey in the 1960s. Through his work both as artist and teacher, he influenced the next generation of Turkish artists.  Not only did he present an interpretation of New Realism and Pop Art, Dadaism, and Surrealism, but he also introduced Duchamp's ideas.

       

      Contrary to the situation abroad where the alternatives to painting and sculpture emerged as avant-garde marginal movements outside the art institutions, in Turkey the ‘Art’s Other Face” came out of the Istanbul Fine Arts Academy (presently known as Mimar Sinan University).  Between 1977 and 1987, the Fine Arts Academy within the Istanbul Art Festival agenda sponsored bi-annual exhibitions entitled “Yeni Eğilimler (New Directions)”.  While all of the artists who participated in these shows, Şükrü Aysan, Osman Dinç, Serhat Kiraz, Cengiz Çekil, Canan Beykal, Alparslan Baloğlu, Ergül Özkutan, Ayşe Erkman, Füsün Onur, Gürel Yontan, İsmail Saray, Gülsüm Karamustafa, Handan Börüteçene, and Yılmaz Aysan, did not work outside of the painting and sculpture tradition, their work shocked the public and showed innovation in their efforts to introduce contemporary art approaches to the Turkish art world. In the same way that I based my selection of the European and American pool of artists for this book on personal preference, my selection of Turkish artists also reflected my personal preferences. My aim was to choose those artists who had attempted to broaden the boundaries of art beginning early in their careers.

       

       

      In addition to these organized group efforts, several individual artists such as Füsün Onur played an early important role in bringing “Art's Other Face" to Turkey.  After finishing her Master's Degree in sculpture at the Maryland Institute of Art in the U.S.A., beginning in the early 1970s, almost every two years in Turkey, she opened a sculpture exhibition.  Showing the changeable in art and remaining outside the consumerist art market, she used breakable, easily spoiled, easily ripped and perishable materials such as paper, carton, canvas, rope, rags, foam rubber and plastic. In 1978 she began to work outside the painting and sculpture tradition.

       

      While working on an advanced art degree in Paris between 1970 and 1975, Şükrü Aysan became interested in Minimal and Anti-Formal work prevalent in art exhibitions at that time.  In particular, Conceptual art's questioning of the concept of modern art theory caught his attention.  After returning to Turkey to teach in Adnan Çoker's studio, through organization of exhibitions, translation of work from the Art & Language journals, writing interpretive articles about Conceptual art, and conducting classroom discussion, Aysan introduced Conceptual art to the Turkish art community. 

       

      In 1977, along with Serhat Kiraz, Ahmet Öktem, and Avni Yamaner, he founded the Art Definition Group (Sanat Tanımı Topluluğu, STT).  Instead of producing sellable objects, members of this group questioned the boundaries and function of art.  In this manner, they shared many characteristics with the Art & Language group. Both groups made reference to Duchamp's ideas and Sol LeWitt's writings as they strove to find alternatives to Formalism.  Through discussion and collective activities, both groups strove to learn together. Since both groups investigated the relationship between image and language, their art practice and theory overlapped.    Even though these parallels can be seen, it would be misleading to infer a direct cross germination.  Turkish artists struggled with problems specific to their own environment.  For example, members of the STT group worked together to pass from the tradition supported by the Fine Arts Academy of analyzing surface and visual qualities of painting to the analysis of the concept of art.

       

      In the 1981 STT work entitled Sanat Olarak Betik (Art as Description), Aysan referred to Conceptual art as "art's self analysis", a term coined previously by Alfred Pacquement. Using translations of texts by Sol LeWitt, Joseph Kosuth, and members of the Art & Language group, Aysan presented his interpretation of Conceptual art in a manner striving to remain close to Conceptual Art’s original aims. For instance, he pin pointed several distinctive characteristics of Conceptual art: it questioned and analyzed all facets of art; used British Analytical/Linguistic philosophical theory to analyze the concept of art; was both a theoretical analysis of art and an artistic practice; used art texts in the form of tautological propositions; and worked to break down the traditional boundaries of the definition of art as well as to find alternative art models. 

       

      In both his own art work and through the leadership he gave to members of STT, Aysan aimed to produce pure Conceptual art as outlined before 1975 by Sol LeWitt, Joseph Kosuth and the Art & Language group.  In 1981 Serhat Kiraz, Ahmet Öktem, Avni Yamaner, İsmail Saray, Ergül Özkutan and Alparslan Baloğlu left the group to follow their own initiatives and moved outside of Conceptual art's purest definition.  Again a parallel can be seen between this group and the Art & Language group whose members after 1975 also dispersed to follow their own inclinations.  In Turkey as abroad, Conceptual art became a broad term to refer to work outside the painting and sculpture tradition based on any of the Anti-Formal 1960 endeavors.  Perhaps, as Şükrü Aysan has proposed, the 1960-70s purist Conceptual art should be renamed as Analytic Art.

       

      In the 1980s, articles in art magazines criticized the lack in the Turkish context of such support institutions as contemporary art museums, of a perceived weakness of governmental incentives for artists, and  of the failure of local artist's work to reach a level comparable to contemporary western artists.  Nevertheless, during this period, art consumers increased, galleries opened, and a few art critics became influential as translations of western art references increased.  Likewise, exposure to work outside the painting and sculpture tradition gained impetus not only through the endurance of Turkish artists participating in the “Öncü Türk Sanatından Bir Kesit (A Cross Section of Avant Garde Turkish Art)” and the A, B, C, D exhibitions, but also through their individual exhibitions.

       

      Sarkis Zabunyan, who had been teaching at the Ecole des Arts Décoratif (School of Decorative Arts) since 1964, contributed work to the 1969 “When Attitudes Becomes Form” exhibition, and the 1977 Documenta VI, as well as opened numerous one man exhibitions throughout Europe. After twenty-one years, he returned in 1985 to Turkey to contribute work to the “Öncü Türk Sanatından Bir Kesit” (A Cross Section of Avant Garde Turkish Art) exhibition at Yildız University.  In 1986 he began to open one-man shows sponsored by Rabia Capa at Maçka Art Gallery and in 1987 he started to contribute work to group exhibitions in Turkey such as the 1987 First International Contemporary Art Exhibition, the 1989 Second International Istanbul Biennial, and the 1995 Fourth International Istanbul Biennial.

       

      Perhaps marginal public interest resulted from Arte Povera, Minimal and Conceptual art work by non-Turkish artists included in the international Istanbul biennials, but the work in the first of these exhibits by Turkish artists continued to be predominately painting and sculpture. Work by François Morellet, Michelangelo Pistoletto and Gilberto Zorio appeared in the 1987 I. International Istanbul Contemporary Art Exhibition and the 1989 2. Istanbul Biennial included work by Sol LeWitt, Anne-Patrick Poirier, Daniel Buren, Richard Long, and Jannis Kounellis.  In the early 1990s as the Turkish economy opened to the free market and telecommunications expanded, venues for exposure of artists to the international art scene increased. Furthermore, young Turkish artists were influenced by the 1991 Berlin Metropolis exhibition and the attention given to Joseph Beuys and Andy Warhol after their deaths in the 1980s. The three-day Joseph Bueys Symposium held at Mimar Sinan University in 1991 further familiarized the Turkish art community to Beuys ideas and work.

       

      A strong shift towards the installation form by the work of Turkish artist included in the 1992 Third International Istanbul Biennial continued to show that  “Art's Other Face" was becoming strongly entrenched in the Turkish art community. International endeavors such as in the 1990 2nd Minos Beach Art Symposium in Crete; in the 1992 “Sanat, Texnh” with fourteen Greek and Turkish contemporary artists; the Turkish participation in the 1993 45th Biennale of Venice; in the 1994 “İskele Türkische Kuınst Heute” (Berlin and Stuttgart); in the 1994 “Orient Express” exhibition,(Yıldız Palace, Istanbul and Berlin); and in the 1996 “Diyaloglar” (Dialogues)  exhibition  to mention only a few shows curated by  Beral Madra,  have played a significant role in exposing the work of Turkish artists abroad.  When addressing the issue of Turkish artists abroad mention must also be made of Ayşe Erkmen’s participation in the 1993 DAAD program in Berlin. She lived and worked in Berlin for a year.  Also, in 1996 Hale Tenger participated in the 1996 Rotterdam First Manifesta exhibition.   During July of 1995, the International Plastic Art Association (Uluslararası Plastik Sanatlar Dernek, PSD) sponsored an exhibition for 240 young artists.  Organized in a workshop format, this exhibition, “Oteki” (Other) consisted of performances, happenings, installations, and art statements showing this young generation’s commitment to these approaches.

       

      The Fourth International Istanbul Biennial curated by René Block represented the most recent tendencies in both Turkish and International art as it aimed to initiate a dialogue among artists with perspectives outside the central-peripheral model.   In conjunction with this exhibition, the “Fluxus” show at the Atatürk Cultural Center presented further exposure to the ideas of Joseph Beuys and the artists of this movement.  Other artists who had been active in the innovative 1960-1970 activities such as Marcel Broodthaers, Jannis Kounellis, Bruce Nauman, and Lawrence Weiner were also represented in this biennial.  With the choice of the title, “Orientation”,  Block raised political questions to be addressed by artists in a workshop setting.  Important as a support for his prediction that the fatal dominance by men has finally begun to break, Block pointed out that the Turkish woman artists included in the exhibition represent a more radical position than the men. Following the teachings of Beuys, Block advocates a peaceful revolution to bring about social and political change using artist’s statements.  In this exhibition, two of the first artists to work outside of the painting and sculpture tradition in Turkey, Ayşe Erkmen and Füsün Onur,  as well as a younger generation of installation artists,  stood side by side on equal footing  with the non-Turkish  artists  to present a "vision of art in a paradoxical world."

       

      In June of 1995, the large exhibition, “Öteki” (Other), organized for HABITAT-II by PSD (Plastic Arts Association) took place in Antrepo, a space previously occupied by the 4th International Istanbul Biennial, with a cross section of work by contemporary Turkish artists.  This cross-section of mature and beginning artists working inside and outside the painting and sculpture tradition, showed that the aim begun in the 1970s with the Yeni Eğilim (New Direction) exhibitions to bring Turkish artist work to the level of contemporary western artists has been achieved in the 1990s.   For example, in November of 1996 at the New York New Museum of Contemporary Art, Hale Tenger’s installation, Enclosures, was shown together with work by Carolee Scheneeman. 

       

      Art As Dialogue

       

      While the artwork presented gives only a glimpse of the dynamic period from the 1960's through today (1998), it may give a concrete example of the way, as Joseph Kosuth pointed out, art stays alive by influencing other art.  By saying this, he meant that some aspect of the work of an older generation of artists becomes useful for the new purposes of younger artists. For example, in the 1960s, Kosuth studied the work of Ad Reinhardt, found useful elements in the older artist's work, and used these elements to develop a related, but different type of work.  Likewise, in the 1980's and 90's, a younger artist, Felix Gonzalez-Torres, studied Kosuth's work, found it relevant, and adapted Kosuth’s use of the billboard in the art context.  Gonzalez-Torres used the billboard as a space to point out social and political issues, while Kosuth had used it to investigate an alternative exhibition space.  In his 1991 work, Adsiz (Untitled) (Plate 87), by positioning on a billboard an image of the bed in which his lover had recently died from AIDs, Gonzalez-Torres used a public space, the billboard, to display a private space, ones bed. Through this act, he wished to show that even a private space can become public for people subject to laws regarding homosexuality.

       

       

      The 1996 exhibition, "Mediascape", at the Guggenheim Museum in New York, showed work by several generations of artists who had explored the link between art and technology.  In the 1960s Nam June Paik began explorations into the potential of video equipment and video generated images as art material.  In this 1996 New York Guggenheim exhibition, a student of Paik, Ingo Günther, presented a two-channel video installation entitled In the Realm of the West-Wind World.  In this installation politically oriented piece, the video images showed a pair of white flags blown towards one another with images from the American and Soviet flags overlaid with images of the two superpowers.  In the work located at the entrance to the Guggenheim museum, similar to that included in the Fourth International Istanbul Biennial", Paik used electronic editing to give the television screen a disturbing quality.  Images changed and cut each other quicker than could be consciously absorbed.

       

       

      While the examples given here are too few to make a sweeping generalization, perhaps an important characteristic of the work of the younger generation is their sense of social purposefulness and responsibility.  In place of being alienated and isolated from society, today's artist searches for interconnectedness and socially interactivity. In her book, The Reenchantment of Art Suzi Gablik emphasized that one of the main tasks today is to "reenchant" the whole culture.  To her "reenchantment" means to move beyond the modern traditions of mechanism, positivism, empiricism, rationalism, materialism, secularism and scientism in order to heal the world afflicted by the Cartecian model that separated the mind, body, and spirit.

       

       

      Many of the younger Turkish artists working outside of the painting and sculpture tradition have also shown a move away from isolated, personal subject matter to focus on social issues central to the whole of society.  For example, Ali Akay as curator of the 1996 Cyprus II, International Mağusa Culture Art and Tourism Festival, showed work by Turkish artists that focused on the question of suppression of minority groups in Modern society. In her installation, Cross Section (Plate 88) for the "Manefesta 1", Hale Tenger projected a large rotating image showing her own face and the back of her head as she recited an English text. In this piece she questioned issues related to recent migratory tendencies in Europe.

       

      Not only have artists shifted towards an interest in social issues, but they have also started to use art spaces to generate dialogues between artists and audiences or between artists and artists.  For example, in the 1996 exhibition, “Söz (Yitimi) Anlam (Yitimi) İltişim (Sizlik” [Logos (Aphasia) (Non) Signification (Non) Communication] the organizer or as he called himself, artist as mediator, İsmet Doğan, began a dialogue among nineteen artists about issues related to language, communication, and representation. At the exhibition opening, Dogan displayed a printed book-like object containing representations of work the artists had submitted to him as proposals for a 1998 exhibition.  By just exhibiting the proposals, he aimed to emphasize the difference between the "real" thought or idea and its "representation", in the form of a spoken or written word or image; the difference between the "real" art work exhibited in an exhibition contrasted to a "representation" of the art work seen in a catalogue; and the difference between a "real" event and its "representation" broadcast on the news. The December 1996 Interdisciplinary Young Artist's Association's Performance Days (Disiplinlerarası Genç Sanatçlar Derneği) event also used art as a space to exchange information.

       

       

      At the end of the century, the meaningful work of art no longer just hangs on walls as decorative aesthetic objects or functions as negotiable currency in the marketplace.  Often there is nothing to buy, sell, or promote.  The art event may only point out relationships and emphasize the connectedness that integrates the needs and talents of the artist with the needs of the environment and community.  Perhaps as we slowly become aware of the interrelational and process character of the world through developments in genetics and quantum physics, the art event will become more and more a place where the artist and audience can carry on a dialogue.

       

      Published in Istanbul in Turkish March 1998

       

       

      SEARCHING

      2008

       

      Introduction

       

      Artwork by artists described above still influences younger generations and many of these artists continue to follow active careers. Work by Gonzalez-Torres, Sol LeWitt, Bruce Nauman, Lawrence Weiner, and Joseph Kosuth, international artists I discussed, remain influential and were included in the 2007, 52nd International Biennial in Venice. The USA pavilion featured work by the Cuban-American artist, Gonzalez-Torres. His piece, Untitled (Golden), from 1995, made one year before he died, incorporates spectator interaction. A curtain of gold plastic beads changes shape as spectators pass through. Sol LeWitt died in April of 2007 shortly before the opening of this exhibition, but Scribbles: Volumes (PW), a 414 x 363.2 cm. black pencil gradated dark to light and light to dark drawing was included as was Bruce Nauman’s Venice Fountains, an installation made from wax, plaster, wire, water, faucets, a water pump and a tub-like sink. Lawrence Weiner’s artwork, Primary secondary tertiary, was prominently displayed on the outside of the building housing the show, “Think with the Senses – Feel with the Mind” curated by Robert Storr.


      For the Armenian Mekhitarian Monastery of San Lazzaro on the San Lazzaro Island, Joseph Kosuth made his project, The Lanugage of Equilibrium. Yellow neon words about water from Armenian, Italian and English languages were installed on the outside of buildings and the pier of the island.


      I believe the closing of the Borusan Art Center to be a significant loss to the contemporary art scene in Istanbul because it offered a small window to international art.  To mention just a few important events: “Fluxus a collection of Inge Baecker Gallery” took place, in September of 1999; Joseph Kosuth’s work was introduced to Turkey in a show entitled “Konuklar ve Yabancilar: Rossini Turkiye’de” (Guests and Foreigners: Rossini in Turkey); in March of 2000, “Beuys, Desenler Nesneler Baskilar (Beuys, Drawings Objects Prints) opened; Sophia Calle’s work was included in the 2004 “Silent Screams, Difficult Dreams” (Sessiz Cigliklar, Karmasik Ruyalar) exhibition; and Rebecca Horn’s work was shown in October, 2004.   Between 1998 and 2000, “Istanbul Gidis-Donus” (Istanbul Roundtrip), “Istanbul Gidis-Donus II”, “Istanbul Gidis-Donus III” exposed local spectators to several Turkish artists working abroad such as Fatih Aydogdu, Cem Aydogan, Engin Cavusoglu, Melek Mazici, Sukran Moral, Sukran Aziz, Osman Dinc, Azade Koker, Ahmet Oran, Canan Tolon, Ipek Duben, and Zafer and Barbara Baran.  Likewise, beginning in 1998, Borusan’s annual exhibitions for young artists “Yeni Onerler/Yeni Onemeler”, played an integral role in allowing access to the artworld for new art school graduates.

       

      The residency programs and collaborative work at Garanti Plaform have served and continue to serve as a model for both international and local art endeavors. Under the direction of Vasif Kortun, some of the important exhibitions at Proje 4L were “Yerlesmek” (Becoming a Place), 2001; “Yeniden Bak” (Look Again) 2001; “Plajin Altinda: Kaldirim Taslari (Under the Beach: The Pavement) 2002; and Halil Altindere’s “I’m Too Sad to Kill You/Seni Oldurecegim Icin Cok Uzgunum” in 2003. Many artists featured in these exhibitions such as Sener Ozmen, Ahmet Ogut, and Serkan Ozkaya have become known internationally. Likewise, many artists who showed in the self-organized exhibitions “Arada”, 1997; “Ardarda”, 1998; “Arada-99”, 1999; “Yerli Mali” 2000; "Yurttan Sesler”, 2001; and “Aileye Mahsustur”, 2003, also moved into the international scene.  For instance, to just mention a few Neriman Polat participated in the 1999 6th International Istanbul Biennial, Taner Ceylan in the 2003 8th International Istanbul Biennial, Extramucadele in the 2007 10th International Istanbul Biennial.  Gul Ilgaz and Neriman Polat were invited to the 2005 51st Venice Biennial.

       

      Furthermore, Turkish artists featured in this book continue to show abroad and in Turkey.  Ayse Erkmen, Fusun Onur, Gulsun Karamustafa and Hale Tenger have shown continuously abroad, but of more importance is the emphasis given to them this year by YapiKredi.  Not only did they each have a one woman show in the Kazim Taskent Yapi Kredi Gallery, but also Yapi Kredi Publications printed books for each:  Gulsun Karamustafa My Roses My Reveries (Gullerim Tahayyullerim); Hale Tenger Stranger Within (IcerdekiYabanci); AyseErkmen)>Ucucu</=simdi=(temporary=contemporary); Fusun Onur Dikkatli Gozler Icin (For Careful Eyes). I hope that Kutlug Ataman’s book entitled Sen Zaten Kendini Anlat! (You Tell Me About Yourself Anyway!) will be followed by a one-man exhibition. The exhibition “Modernity and Beyond” that opened at Santralistanbul in 2007 included work by STT and many of the Turkish artists and artists groups emphasized in this book.

       

      Since 2000, Zeynep Rona’s TurkiyeSanatyilligi_ has proven indispensable for the local art researcher; likewise, since 1999, Halil Altindere’s annual publication, Art-ist Guncel Sant Seckisi, has given access to important writings on art and his book User’ Manual Contemporary Art in Turkey 1986-2006 serves as an important reference for the local and international contemporary art audience.  It is significant that in 1999 art-ist Gucel Sanat Seckisi Altindere wrote about STT; in art-ist Gucel Sanat Seckisi 5 Pelin Tan wrote about the AES Group; that Altindere dedicated art-ist Guncel sanat seckisi 7 entirely to the artist group IRWIN.

       

      Sarkis continues to enliven the local art scene with interactive projects. For example, n April of 2005 he opened the show “Bir Kilmetre Tasi” (A Milestone) at Aksanat in Beyoglu.  On the first floor was the neon sign Sarkis Films 1997-2004 acompanied by a text by Ali Akay, a text by Sarkis and rose petals; on the next floor he included eleven photographs chosen from the history of cinema with eleven outfits for children (The visiting children could wear the clothes and participate in Zeynep Tanbay’s dance workshop); the next floor was used to show his films, give conferences, and concerts; while the next floor housed a contemporary art workshop for children called “Su icinde suluboya atolyesi; between the floors were signs on the wall with words by Gilles Deleuze; listening to concerts and drinking coffee was also a part of this exhibition. He also participated in the 10th International Istanbul Biennial with a special project.

       

      In 2007, for the first time, Turkey had its own pavilion in the 52nd Venice Biennial and it has become a well-accepted fact that the Istanbul International Biennial is one of the most important events in the international art scene.  Numerous exhibitions focusing on Istanbul have taken place in Europe and others are being planned. Since Istanbul is to be the theme of the Frankfurt Book Fair in the Fall of 2008, many local institutions are planning related events.  For instance, Garanti Gallery is planning a show entitled “Becoming Istanbul” to be held at the Deutsches Architectumuseum. Boundaries are expanding internally as well as externally.  Some important contemporary art exhibitions have taken place outside of Istanbul while other exhibitions have brought artists living in smaller cities to Istanbul. Just to mention two, Vasif Kostun curated “Genc Sanat-3 in Ankara in 2000. Beral Madra curated the show “Sifre/Password:Istanbul” at the Diyarbakir Art Center in 2002. The exhibition, “Free Kick” (Serbest Vurus) was shown at Antrepo along side the Hafriyat exhibition during the 9th International Istanbul Biennial in 2005. The curator, Halil Altindere brought artists from different regions and social backgrounds into one space. By exhibiting work by artists from Iskenderum, Denizli, Kiziltepe, Ankara, Diyarbakir, Amasya, Balikesir, Urfa and Mardin side-by-side with Istanbul artists, Altindere questioned the closed networks of the contemporary art world and opened up possibilities for many young artists. When periphery areas of Istanbul are exposed to contemporary art beginning in the fall of 2008 with the “Tasinabilir Sanat Projesi” (Transportable Art Project) sponsored by 2010 Istanbul European Cultural Center, the move away from showing artwork only in the centrally located art gallery district on the European side of Istanbul will perhaps bring further expansion of accepted boundaries.

       

      Ten Years Later

       

      In the last pages of Arayislar, (Searching) as it was published in 1998, I predicted that the art event would become more and more a place for dialogue.   As I look back, I ask why I made this prediction? Perhaps, I posed this thought because I see the art event as a place to build models and experiment with their feasibility.  Perhaps more than a prediction, I hoped artists would create models for working and living together, models for learning to interact, communicate, network, establish relationships and live side by side with polarity.  I envisioned all types of collaboration both for the materialization and presentation of art objects in art events.

       

      Since the early 1990’s in my art practice I have made neon works, book art, digital prints, and videos involving dialogue.  I have worked with artists to organize exhibitions, worked with students to materialize projects, and opened a collaborative off-space.  The information included here originates from my personal understanding of art as dialogue, a term that I coined in the early 1990s to describe my own way of working.  In this short text, I am presenting examples of work that I remember from personal observations and experiences at art exhibitions and art events from the past ten years, but I have attempted to classify these examples in a way that makes sense to me.  As yet, I do not believe a proper classification of dialogue related art has been made and examples included here are in no way comprehensive or scientifically researched. The work and artists I present can only be seen as a set of incomplete examples.

       

      In his article “The Curator’s Moment”, Michael Brenson describes biennials as events recognized by local and international media and attended by a local and an international audience in which local, regional, and international art scenes legitimize each other.[2] Accepting this as a valid statement, I believe one of the strongest indications of a general move towards acceptance of a more dialogue based art in Turkey would be the steady increase in collaborative work included in the Istanbul biennials. Whereas only one collaborative work, Turk Truk, 1995, by Huseyin Bahri Alptekin and Michael Morris, was presented in the 4th Istanbul Biennial, over seventeen collaborative works and eight artist initiatives participated in the 2007 10th International Istanbul BiennialIn this event, in my opinion, one of the most impressive collaborations, AES+F GROUP, included a digital print Last Riot-Last Riot 2. Their collaborative film, Last Riot, a 3-D animation showing a new paradise without male/female, good/evil/ destiny/free will, or victim/assailant was shown in the Russian pavilion at the 2007 52nd Venice Biennial.

       

      It is also significant that the 11th International Istanbul Biennial will be organized by the curator initiative (collective), What, How and for Whom (WHW), a group of four women curators founded in 1999 in Zagreb, Croatia.


       

      About Art as Dialogue

       

      I agree with many of the ideas Nicolas Bourriaud presents in Relational Aesthetics  (translated from French into English 2002 and into Turkish, “Iliskisel Estetik, in 2005). He supports what he refers to as ‘relational aesthetic’, artwork that incorporates dialogue and art events that use human interaction and social context as their theoretical base. While Bourriaud sees the art arena as a place for building models, he does not promote the idealistic or teleological utopias of modernism.  In a world where social bonds have become standardized, he believes art events can show alternative ways to live, interact, and take action. Today’s significant artistic practices take as their theme the creation of opportunities outside the family or ghetto for human interaction and sociability. Therefore, the aesthetic object can be a meeting, an encounter, an event, collaboration between people in space/time, a game, a festival, a place of sociability, or another type of relational interaction. Most importantly, the artwork must generate a dialogue and a space for human experience. [3]

       

      Early on, many artworks emphasized collaboration and collective social experience as they dissolved the distinction between performer/audience,professional/amateur,and production/reception. Some important early examples of process/dialogue as art would be: Helio Oiticica’s practicing the samba in the 1960’s; Adrian Piper’s giving ‘funk’ dance lessons between 1982 and 1984; Tom Marioni’s habit of drinking beer with friends as an art event in the 1970s; Ian Wilson’s practice of conducting philosophical discussions in art galleries since the 1970s; from the same years, Joseph Beuys’ artistic talks about politics, aesthetics, metaphysics, and social relationships; Martha Rosler’s 1973 garage sale; Allen Ruppersberg’s 1969 running a café with Daniel Spoerri, Gordon Matta-Clark; and 1971 managing a hotel with Alighiero Boetti.

       

      Since the early 1990’s, Rirkrit Tiravanija has constructed numerous models for human interaction in the art context. For one event, he cooked and served a Thai meal and for another, he organized a recording studio in the museum setting. In 1999, he expanded this project to include both Thai cuisine and outdoor cinema. Community Cinema was included in the 2001, 7th International Istanbul Biennial. Also, in 1999, Tiravanija built a full-scale wooden replica of his East Village apartment in the Gavin Brown Gallery. Including a working kitchen, a bedroom, and a bathroom, it was open 24 hours a day for people to live, eat, and party.

       

      In 2004, for the retrospective show of his projects entitled “No Ghosts in the Wall”, he wrote the script for an audio guide.  In this sound piece, he spoke in the third person about several of his projects and gave insights about his motivation.  Since the rooms in the museum were empty, the audience had to visualize the work for themselves.

       

      In 1996, a five man Slovenian collective called IRWIN initiated the project entitled Transnacionala? A Journey from the East to the West that required ten participants to travel for a month in two ten-square meter mobile homes across the United States.  Their aim was to bring back memories, insights, and images about the banalities of everyday life as well as the experienced psychological tensions.   IRWIN has also participated in the 5th International Istanbul Biennial as well as the 9th International Istanbul Biennial.

      Carsten Holler’s group project from 2000 entitled The Baudouin/Boudewijn Experiment isolated 200 people for 24 hours in a furnished space without mobile phones, televisions, radios, or any type of outside communication.  Since the project was not videoed, the audience learned about the participants’ experiences from their oral recitations based on memory. He also participated in the 5th and the 6th International Istanbul Biennial.  In 2002 project that also used a large number of participants, Jeremy Deller, in his project entitled “The Battle of Orgreave”, staged the re-enactment of a 1984 miner’s strike in England.  For authenticity, he recruited as many of the original miners as he could.[4]

       

      A husband and wife partnership also interested in the analysis of historical events, Diller and Scofidio, often work on the subject of tourism. For their installation, Suit Case Studies: the Production of a National Past (Bavul Calismalari: Ulusal bir Gecmisin Uretilmesi), they researched historical and national stories. Their aim was to expose the role played by institutions in the making of national myths. Travel was the theme for InterClone Hotel (1997), an advertising campaign for a fictional hotel chain. This public artwork involved the installation of images of standard hotel rooms with elements taken traditional cultural motifs on billboards in six pilot locations.  All cities were in newly emerging economies where globalization is erasing distinctions between the "third world" and the "first world." This project was installed in the Ataturk International Airport as a part of the 5th International Istanbul Biennial. This work encouraged passengers moving through the space to consider the effect of international tourism on local tradition by using images that superimposed  prototypical regional features onto a basic static backdrop.[6]


      Several contemporary artists and artist collectives define their practices by a belief and interest in cross-cultural dialogue. One example would be the Austrian arts collective, WochenKlausur begun in 1994 in Zurich.  Their first project conducted on a pleasure boat brought together over 60 politicians, journalists, sex workers and activist to have a conversation about the problems of drug addicted prostitutes in Zurich.  Another such project took place in Oakland, California.

       

       

      The artist, Suzanne Lacy, in her The Roof is on Fire project invited over 1000 residents to listen to broadcasted dialogues between a Latino and an African-American teenager sitting inside a parked car as they discussed problems they encountered as youths of color.[8]

       

      Since early in her career Sophie Calle has continually used dialogue in her work.  In 1980 for two weeks, this artist followed to Venice and continually photographed a man she had met in a party.  A year later, she returned to Venice and worked as a temporary maid in a hotel. For this work, she photographed the rooms before they were cleaned and made up stories about the occupants. As a one-woman show, Take Care of Yourself, in the French Pavilion at the 2007 52nd Venice Biennial, Calle interviewed and videoed 107 women as they read and responded to an email letter sent to her by a boyfriend who was severing their relationship.  She also asked each participant to analyze the email and make a response by creating a film, composing a song, writing a poem, cooking a meal, making a magic trick, creating a dance, or doing something in a manner relevant to their professions.

       

      In another touching video installation, also included in this biennial, she documented her mother during the weeks leading up to her death.

       

       

      Another interesting German artist who makes dialogue related work is Erik Goengrich, an artist and architect who spent three-months in Turkey with a grant from the Berlin Senate, Department of Scientific Research and Culture between 2001 and 2002. In 2004, at the ifa Gallery in Stuttgart, Germany, Vasif Kortun curated a show entitled “URBANreVIEWS ISTANBUL” that included Goengrich’s work, Picnic City, an architectural related project about his experience in Turkey.  As well as Istanbul, Goengrich has used photographs, drawings, books, and interviews to show his study of the social and aesthetic architectural texture in Berlin, Paris, Buenos Aires, Mexico City, and Los Angeles.  His work, Starving for Embarrassing Architecture - Sakil Mimariye Doyamamak for the 9th Istanbul Biennial came from a six-month bicycle tour of Los Angeles.  During this tour, he addressed issues related to citizen’s feelings and ideas about an ideal living and working space.[9]  In a 2008 work called Duty Free, he collaborated with another artist, Stefan Shankland, to transform the duty free shop of the Leipzig/Halle airport into an artist studio for “production, experimentation and exchange about the form and function of sculpture in a context of globalization.” Another part of this project, Silent Residency, located in Kursdorf, a village in the middle of the two runways of the Leipzig/Halle’s airport, is a spatial sculpture located on the first floor of a single-family house. Spectators entered this space for observation of, contemplation about, questioning on, and coping with the airport.  Located in the Leipzig/Halle airport mall, Go Places, consisted of a 14 meter wide chalk circle and twenty bicycles used by visitors to move around the village of Kursdorf. This portion of the project also linked A Silent Residency with Watching the World Go By located in a spot with a spectacular view for watching arriving and departing airplanes.[10]

       

      Public Art

       

       

      While I am specifically interested in art as dialogue, actions that transform the art audience from a passive viewer into an active participant or move artwork out of the gallery into more public spaces seem to be closely related issues.  Even though much Public Art does little more than make artworks more accessible to a larger population, by doing this, curators and art organizers are forced to interact with politicians, city planners, and other officials to obtain permission for the events.  

       

      Some examples of Public Art in Turkey would be work shown on the streets of Istanbul in Fulya Erdemci’s 2002 “Istanbul Pedestrian Exhibition 1”; Fulya Erdemci and Emre Baykal’s 2005 “Istanbul Pedestrian Exhibiton 2”; work shown on Istanbul billboards in Övül Durmuşoğlu’s 2007 “Radikal Art: Ardından Değil Karşısına”; work shown on Yama’s 6m x 9m lumacom[11] screen atop the Marmara Pera Hotel in Istanbul;

      A group that was also included in the 10th International Istanbul Biennial, Ha za vu zu’s 2007 performance and screening in front of Galata Tower;[14] work shown on Istanbul ferryboats in Derya Yucel’s “iki yaka arasinda” (Between to Coastlines) 2005 project; opening artist’s studios, houses, stores, galleries, cafeterias in the Galata area of Istanbul to the public with the 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 “Gorunurluk Projects” (Accessible Projects) organized by Galata Perform;[15] as well as the 10th International Istanbul Biennial’s 2007 “Nightcomers” that projected over 150 short art films in public spaces around the city.  Other public shows have been organized in Istanbul ferryboats, shopping centers, as well as in Ankara and Istanbul railroad stations.  Most projects at Platform Garanti Contemporary Art Center contain some element of collaboration, but one of the most interesting events took place in March of 2007 with Vasif Kortun’s “Open Library” that transformed the gallery space into a public art library by moving the institutions entire archive downstairs into the gallery thus making it accessible to the general public.[16] 

       

      As I mentioned previously, while most of the projects mentioned above only moved artwork from the gallery into a public space, other projects involved more neighborhood interaction and dialogue.  For example, events taking place in urban areas between buildings such as Can Altay’s Ankara 2001 “Mini Bar” (included in the 8th International Istanbul Biennial); events organized between 2000 and 2005 in an apartment on a backstreet of Istanbul in Özge Açıkkol, Güneş Savaş and Seçil Yersel’s “ODA Project” (Oda Project participated in the 9th International Istanbul Biennial);[17] and portable exhibitions made in construction containers allowing remote areas in the periphery of Istanbul to have access to contemporary art in Marcus Graf’s 2005-2006 Under Construction-Tepe Insaat Guncel Sanat Merkezi (Tepe Construction Contemporary Art Center).  For this container, Volkan Aslan created a pseudo gallery with a framed picture hung on a sterile white wall at the end of a long corridor. In this ironic presentation, he made visibility impossible and the object inaccessible by using harsh florescent lights and a metal chain similar to those used in museums to present spectator access.  

       



      Another recent project that involved interaction between citizens of a small village with students who painted the outside of their homes and artists who lived in the village for two weeks and worked on the streets to make artwork specifically for the village was Gul Ilgaz’s 2005-2006 “Golyazi Project”. This project emphasized a shared dialogue among artists as well as an intense interaction among artists, artist assistants, students and the local villagers.

       


       

      Canan Senol’s work Perde Arkasi (Behind the Scenes) from 2005 brought the inhabitants of an apartment building in the Galata area of Istanbul into contact with the art spectators of that year’s Istanbul biennial.  Canan arranged over the windows of their building enlarged digital photographs of the apartment dwellers showing them performing normal events from their everyday life.  These people volunteered to share these private images with the art spectator.   At the same time, the inhabitants of the apartment could lean out their windows and observe the audience outside.  In this manner, she instigated a dialogue between inside/outside, between private/public, and between subject/object. 

       

      Interactive Art

       

      In recent years many Turkish artist have begun to involve the spectator in their work.  Some of the artists remain within the gallery context while others have moved out into the world into restaurants, automobiles, and newspapers.

       

      As early as 1992, Gulsun Karamustafa was making work that required spectator participation.  In her work entitled, Mystic Transport consisting of 20 metal baskets with wheels containing multi-colored traditional Turkish satin quilts, spectators could move the baskets around the room to re-arrange the installation.

       


      In 1995, at the Temple of Hadrianus in Ephesus, she installed  “Souvenir” a life size panel made from an enlargement of a photo-engraving showing Turkish laborers who had worked on the archeological excavation of the site.  By cutting out the faces of the workers and placing this panel behind the entrance of the temple, she encouraged tourists/spectators to make self-included snapshots.  Objects of Desire/A Suitcase Trade (100 Dollars Limit) was set up in Zurich at the Shedhalle in 1998.  Gulsun bought goods from the Laleli area of Istanbul known for being a center for Russian suitcase trade.  In a suitcase similar to that used for such trade, she ‘smuggled’ her goods into Switzerland and set up a stand reminiscent of those in Turkish markets to display and sell her purchases.  Before spectators bought and took possession of these objects, she photographed the participants using a Polaroid camera.[18]

       

       

      Generally, Can Altay’s installations incorporate architectural structures, videos, photographs, and written texts to present his research on human interaction in urban environment, but recently his work has included an element of participation. His work has been included in the 8th International Istanbul Biennial. During a three month residency program at Spike Island, Bristol, UK, in partnership with Platform Garanti, Contemporary Art Centre in Istanbul, Can made the project, EY AHALI! / Setting a Setting / Letting a Setting Go, that utilizes dialogue as part of his artistic practice.  The work consists of a series of themed discussions in the gallery among invited academics, artists, and musicians. The artist carefully organized objects around a large wooden platform/stage that he constructed to be used for interactive sound work. He carefully made audio and visual documentation of the exhibition process. He also made a structure to display printed texts by writers that he had invited to contribute to his project.  Spectators were encouraged to read and select material from this installation to be made into take-home journals.

       

      In her 2005 performance entitled seyir-name, Gulcin Aksoy transformed a private vehicle into a mode of public transportation.  She gave free rides in her car to anyone wanting to travel from the Galata to Karakoy section of the city, but during this short trip the passengers had to watch her artwork on small televisions.

       

      Serkan Ozkaya’s work entitled ???Bring Me The Head Of...???, was a culinary experiment that took place at Freemans Restaurant in New York City in 2007.   Ozkaya designed a food dish in the shape of a head from a childhood icon, a teddy bear.  This eatable sculpture was included in the restaurant’s menu. Freemans’ chef, Jean Adamson, selected the ingredients for the recipe, but in the menu this item was listed as an artwork for sell.[19] In 2007, Ozkaya repeated this work in Istanbul at the Changa Restaurant.  Serkan’s work has been included in the 9th International Istanbul Biennial. While the artist’s main aim may have been to create an eatable sculpture, this project involved multiple levels of dialogue

       

      Another of his projects from 2003, Today Could be a Day of Historical Importance, involved multiple layers of coordination, collaboration, and dialogue.  He reproduced one page of the Radical newspaper with handwriting and drawings.  In 2005 he repeated this task for the cultural section of The New York Times. 

      Ferhat Özgür also makes participatory work.  In I Love you 301, a Karaoke performance piece, he used the lyrics of a famous love song as the melody for the Article 301 of the Turkish Penal Code.  Spectators in the gallery then sang the lyrics in a typical Karaoke manner. 

      Since the late 1990s, Genco Gulan has been making interactive digital work.  For Cam Man (Glass Man) made in 2002, he collected seven live transmissions coming from different places around the world. His Istanbul’lu Adam (Man from Istanbul) was made using seven live transmitted images from different areas in Istanbul.

      A younger generation of artists is also using technology to create interactive work. Early in 2008, a young upcoming Turkish artist, Ozlem Sulak collaborated with Nagehan Kurali and Selin Ozcelik in the Shamba Event at the Technical Academy Bremen (TAB) in Germany.  They made an interactive animated film that they projected onto a cherry tree in the TAB Garden, a cluster of plants and trees in the middle of a glass and steel building. Using new technology equipment, participants of the project marked their “preferred date of death” on a calendar using twelve different visuals, one for each month.  These dates were then read by a video camera directed towards the surface of the table that contained the needed technical tools. In this collaborative interactive installation, the artists created an environment for reflection on the natural and artificial life cycle of man and nature.

      At an interdisciplinary art Workshop taking place in Nicosia, Cyprus, in November of 2008, Sebnem Somel made an interactive performative work.  During the ten-day event, she walked around the streets of the local market carrying a 50 x 70 cm. canvas.  As she walked along, she spoke with shoppers, pedestrians and shop owners, explained her reason for being in Cyprus, and asked them to chose their favorite colored markers to write their favorite words on the canvas.  Using traditional artists tools, materials, and elements, she involved spectators into the making of the artwork while engaging them in conversation. 

      In 1999, I made my first interactive piece.  On the wall of the gallery of the “Arada ’99” exhibition, I wrote a text entitled, and.  Having originally written this text in English, I translated it myself into Turkish.  After writing the Turkish text on the wall of the gallery, I asked one of my students to correct my translation using a red marker.  Later, I asked Vasif Kortun to correct the Turkish version with red ink for resmi Gorus Guncel Sanat Seckisi-2.  In a poetic language, this text explains Art as Dialogue.  It continues to be meaningful in my art practice and continues to reappear in exhibitions.  For example, for “Between the Waterfronts, Istanbul/Rotterdam Cultural Exchange in 2003, I asked a Turkish woman who lived in Holland to translate the text from Turkish into Dutch before writing it on the gallery wall.  At the opening of the show, the gallery director corrected the Dutch translation with red ink.  In 2005, for the work I named, Blind Intersection, I sent out emails to friends and family living in the USA asking them to forward my email to other people to obtain their impressions about Turks and Turkish people. By requesting them to forward it to their friends, family, acquaintances and students, I hoped to obtain replies unbiased by a personal relationship with me.

       

      Initiatives and Self-organized Collaborations

      Collaborations among artists have taken different forms. Some artists have organized their own exhibitions, some have used their studios as exhibition spaces,  and some have opened non-profit off-space galleries.  Other artists have created portable spaces while others have used internet to present and house their work.  At times, two or more artists have worked together to make one artwork. Other collaborations included curators and art organizers.

      In 1994 Gulcin Aksoy, Neriman Polat, Gul Ilgaz and I (Nancy Atakan) began a series of collaborative self-organized events.  Our aim was to read philosophical and scientific texts together, develop a common theoretical background, and then to present our individual work using innovative techniques and materials in an interactve manner.  For our first exhibition in 1997, “Arada”, we rented a space at Ataturk Culture Center to show our analytical work resulting from our research about and questioning of art.  Gul Ilgaz addressed issues about proportion and the relationship of canvas to exhibition space; Neriman Polat transformed images of school children into icons in a Warholian manner for her photography series; Gulcin Aksoy addressed issues about the size, proportion, and space using a series of black and white photocopies of traditional artist tools; while I, Nancy Atakan, referred to the writings of Walter Benjamin in my photograph/colored photocopy piece that used images of the Turkish tea cup to show how objects reflect cultural meaning.  Our future interests in socialogical and psychological topics became apparent in this exhibition. Realizing the normal spectator would not understand our work, we gave guided tours with detailed explanations. 

      “Ardarda” from 1998 took place in our joint studio in Arnavutkoy. In this show, every week for four weeks, we added our work to that of the previous artist until all four of our works were shown together.  Throughout the exhibition, at least one of us remained in the space to give explanations and answer questions about the theoretical background of our work. Our work addessed issues about Post-Modern theory, the cultural meaning of obects, art historical referencing, the importance of place, and relationship of one artwork to another when brought together into a common space.  In other words, we dealt with the dialogue created between art objects in a space.

      For “Arada ’99”, we rented a space from Istanbul Technical University and in the same year, we exhibited “Arada ‘99” in Vasif Kortun’s magazine resmi Gorus Guncel Sanat Seckisi-2. While questioning the accepted premises of art and searching for alternative methods of presentation, social content always played a major role in our art practice. Technique was also important.  Since we were some  of the first Turkish artists to use new media techniques in our work, our efforts helped to legitimize the use of photography, video, and digital prints as contemporary art materials in the Turkish. 

       

      By 2000, not only had video and digital art been accepted, but the Istanbul art community had also become polarized into two groups, those working with ‘new media’ and those using conventional techniques.  In 2000, to help bridge this gap, we, the four ‘arada’ artists, invited other artists (many from the Hafriyat group) who used more traditional mediums to exhibit with us in an artist-organized project. After numerous meetings, we decided to name the exhibition “Yerli Malli” and rented a space at the Elhamra Gallery. In 2001, we expanded the number of artists for the next show that we later named “Yurttan Sesler”.  With the support of Feyyaz Yaman, this show was organized in the Karsi Sanat Gallery.  In 2003, again at Karsi Sanat Gallery, for “Aileye Mahsustur” we further expanded the number of artists and included a ‘Guest Room” for daily shows of 27 more artists.   These projects were totally artist planned and organized using a non-hierarchical model for interaction. While the general public may have seen these as ordinary group exhibitions, for us, they were much more. The process of organizing the event, the discussions around each artist’s work, regular meetings arranged around evening meals, the joint selection of a theme, decisions about catalogue format, and the general social exchange between the artists played as important a role as the outcome.  As a group we even dealt with problems of censorship. When Taner Ceylan was fired from Yedi Tepe University, after exhibiting “Taner Taner” in the  “Aileye Mahsus” exhibition, we stood behind him as a group.

       

      These were only a few of the initial artist generated independent endeavors taking place in Istanbul.  Gradually, the number of non-profit collaboratively run and self-organized off-gallery spaces increased. In 1999, Selda Asal opened the Apartment Project to provide contemporary artists with an exhibition space and to emphasize interdisciplinary collaboration. In its 24 square meter, Tunel area ground level space, the exhibitions and events of the Apartment Project have always given priority to work that interacts with the daily street life of the area.  For example, in the summer of 2006, a two and half month studio workshop, entitled “All About Lies”, with sixty participants from different disciplines and countries used varying approaches to explore concepts about lies and/or the fake.   When the workshop images and texts, dealing mainly with political lies from Turkey in the 1980s, were adhered to the walls, floor, ceiling, and windows, the artwork in the space appeared as illegible and chaotic, a metaphor for the general atmosphere of that era. For the 2007 new years’ exhibition, “Everything’s going to be Alright”, a title taken from the lyrics of a Bob Marley song, forty-two different participants covered the texts about lies with artwork expressing their hopes for a better world.  But, shortly afterwards, the Armenian journalist, Hrant Dink, was murdered on the street in Istanbul.  As a protest, artists came together to cover images from the other two shows with post-it sized copies of descriptive information taken from newspaper articles about this event. Rather than individual artists showing their work in a common space, for this project, artists came together to create one artwork from numerous parts, a seamless, autonomous statement requiring dialogue, coordination, and communication. [20]  Apartment Project was included in the 10th International Istanbul Biennial as a special project.

       

      Founded in 2003 by Elmas Deniz, Borga Kanturk, Tufan Baltalar, Gökçe Süvari, Merve Şendil, Mehmet Dere and run by Ayşegül Kurtel, K2, a non-profit, self supporting, artist-run Izmir organization, aims to support the emergence of national and international contemporary visual art.  K2 works with both young and established artists to present solo exhibitions and thematic group shows. It has 12 resident artists studios, an artist portfolio archive, and a small reference visual arts library.  K2 was included in the 10th International Istanbul Biennial as a special project.

       

      BAS, an artist run space initiated in 2006 by Banu Cennetoglu (Her work was included in the 10th International Istanbul Biennial.) collects and produces artists’ books. In her opinion, reading a book demands the reader’s participation in a direct and involved manner that can initiate discussion. Even though the maker of a book creates a fixed content, the reader manipulates this both mentally and physically to formulate their individual opinion.

      In 2003 Yesim Ozsoy Gulan founded Galata Perform[22] as an alternative space to promote contemporary performance art. A variety of projects dealing not only with performance art, but also contemporary theater and music originate from this artist run space   Since 2006, this space has hosted Performance Days featuring both international and Turkish performance artists. During this event, neighborhood small businessmen often work together with the artists to produce artwork.

       

      Hafriyat-Karakoy, organized by a group of artists who have exhibited together for the past ten years, opened an artist run off-space in 2007. This group is concerned with tragic and ironic modernization projects in Turkey and aims to organize uncensored exhibitions addressing related issues.[23] This group was included as a special project in both the 9th and 10th International Istanbul Biennial.

       

      Marcus Graff, Volkan Aslan, and I, Nancy Atakan, founded 5533 with its store window gallery, library, artist/curator/art initiative portfolio archives, and new media and sound art sections as an independent space for research, discussion and exhibition of contemporary art. By turning a former business environment into a ‘contact zone’, visitors from different backgrounds, professions, and communities can interact with IMC (Istanbul Textile Traders’ Market) inhabitants to experience various artistic forms in a non-exclusive and non-elitist atmosphere. [24] The first event at 5533 included a video of Dogan Tekeli, the IMC architect, and of Kazim Inal, the manager of business previously housed in the space; a NOMAD installation showing a video of their events; a video of IMC workers giving feedback about their impressions of the artwork shown in IMC during the 10th International Istanbul Biennial; and an exhibition of work by Irfan Onurmen in the shop window. Didem Yazici and Gökhan Toptaş, coordinators of the first project, invited 50 local artists to submit portfolios to the 5533ARCHIVE.  From this pool of artists, Nuri Gülec, the owner of a local teahouse, chose İrfan Önürmen to design artwork for the first exhibition.

       

      Some other off-spaces such as PiST[25] work with young or emerging artists and publish a monthly calendar of events for off-spaces.  MentalKLINIK founded in 2000 by Birol Demir and Yasemin Baydar has realized at least four projects in their Nisantas space: 2001 Sleep, 2002 Game, 2003 Copy, and 2004 Self.[26] URA, another non-profit experimental gallery/project space for contemporary art events was founded in 2007 by Mihda Koray.   Its primary aim pivots around organizing events for the interaction of visual art, music, and performance often including subcultures as well as established artists, curators, and musicians.  In 2008, URA will participate in the London “Publish and be damned” Fair. At this event URA will sponsor the first URA Party and launch its publication, Zine and a Radio Station.  URA maintains a strong international link and supports spontaneous exchanges, projects, and residency programs that create interaction between Istanbul and London.  URA distributes records and magazines.  Many of their events expand into a project about distribution. [27]

       

      Some off spaces exist within other spaces. For example, MASA, a portable display table-like structure, designed by the artist, Vahit Tuna, acts as an alternative space for small budgeted, non-institutional artwork that would not be shown in established galleries.[28]  MASA showed I wanna Hurt Love by the young artist, Özgen Özengen, at the opening of 5533 in February of 2008.

      KUTU, formed by a group of artists (Ali Batı, Gökçen Cabadan, Elmas Deniz, Borga Kantürk, Gökçe Süvari, Evrim Yiğit), ironically advocates institutionalization while producing non-institutional independent exhibitions in diverse art venues. KutuV.1-portable art gallery, was specifically designed for Proje4L in 2002/2003 when Vasif Kortun, the curator of “Under the Beach: the Pavement”, asked the Izmir artists to curate an exhibition as a subset of this show.  KutuV.2, an "info kiosk" version featuring established Balkan artists, was installed in Huseyin Bahri Alptekin’s exhibition "B-Factor”. KutuV.3, consisting of a listening booth and audio files was installed in a group exhibition centered on the theme of music. Spectators used headphones to listen to five sound art works with the common theme of "Hypoxia”.

      Some organizations do not have permanent spaces. Organized by Kristina Kramer, Oyku Ozsoy, and Bengu Karaduman and originally located in Cukurcuma, Alti Aylik emphasizes co-existence, not only by sharing a material space with a business, but also by creating a space for collective intelligence to verbalize and materialize ideas.[29] Working with another group, Nuans, from Dusseldorf, they conducted a project called “On Produceability” in the spring of 2008 at 5533.  For this project, twenty-two Turkish/European artists worked in the space to transform designs into concrete objects using local small manufacturers.  The EU artists were intrigued that unlike in their home countries, in Istanbul they could have objects made to order in the nearby neighborhoods.

       

      Another mobile collaborative organization, Good Gangsters, a research based curatorial collective, was founded by two curators, Adnan Yildiz and Esther Lu. During the 10th International Istanbul Biennial, they created an organic working model entitled Big Family Business.  Over a two-week period, they organized a discussion event to process the transnational art traffic present in Istanbul during the biennial.   Many of their events allowed curators to investigate the transformation of artistic and curatorial practices. [30]

       

      Other self-organized collaborations are completely transitory. Tersahane, a contemporary art and platform for developing ideas curated by Devrim Kadirbeyoglu, was a music/art exhibition that lasted for one month, from Oct. 1 to 20, 2007, on a street near the Bosphorus, in Bostanci, and Beyoglu, as a parallel event to the 10th Istanbul Biennial.  NOMAD founded in 2002 by Basak Senova, working together with a group of engineers, designers, curators, writers, and architects produces and experiments with new patterns in the digital art and sound art spheres.  This organization plans events such as sound art exhibitions and workshops. Senova  helped to launch CTRL_ALT-DEL, Turkey’s first sound-art endeavor. Between September and November of 2002 in Maastricht, Netherlands, and Istanbul, Turkey, more than 30 people from 16 different countries participated in workshops, panels, performances and created a website and exhibition.[31]

       

       


      Videoist founded by Ferhat Satici and Hulya Ozdemir have organized two video festivals, one in 2003 and the other in 2007.  This organization emphasizes the artist and their video work rather than the market and industrial film. Videoist, by compiling a selection of recently made independent artist’s video work, functions as a tool to document video work made by Istanbul artists. Location of viewing has been a major concern of the Videoist organizers.  “Videoist 1” gave importance to presenting the work in galleries on the Asian as well as European sides of Istanbul.  While “Videoist 2”, not only showed the compilation of videos at the Istanbul Modern Art Museum, it also moved out of Istanbul to a viewing at the Diyarbakir Art Center.  Plans have been made for the next Videoist project to be shown at the 2008 Frankfurt Book Fair, as well as at art centers located in periphery areas of Istanbul as a part of the “Tasinabilir Sanat” (Transportable Art) 2010 Istanbul European Cultural Center Project. [32]

       

      Some collaborations have only virtual permanent spaces, but on occasion move into real spaces. For example, located in Berlin, Germany, berlinerpool, an experimental project, was developed in 2005 by an artist, Sencar Vardarman. Since 2008, Vardarman has managed the project with the help of Johannes Burr. It aims to facilitate communication between artists, art organizations, and art curators. Berlinerpool has compiled an information platform of Turkish and international and archive library of artist portfolios. It publishes a weekly on-line news calendar, keeps a comprehensive website, in addition, it has developed an infrastructure for realizing art events and exhibitions.  The first public presentation of Berlinerpool took place at the exhibition “Urbane Realitaten: Focus Istanbul” in 2005.  At this show in the Martin Gropius Bau-Berling, the Berlinerpool archive functioned as a library of artist portfolios in white folders, a small television presented a selection of artist’s videos, and artwork printed on the wall by Vardarman [33] 

       

      While mainly showing its work in internet, Atil Kunst has installed work in the toilet of the Hafriyat-Karakoy space.  Founded in November of 2006, Atil Kunst took its name from a famous comic strip, Tarkan ve Kurt, and the phonetic similarity between the words Kunst (the German word for art) and Kurt (the Turkish word for wolf). While the original comic strips were used for nationalist expression, Atil Kunst ironically criticizes political and social events in Turkey. [34] 

      Online/Offline Xurban collective located at www.xurban.net since the year 2000, is dedicated to art and politics. Moving from Istanbul, to New York, to Ankara, and to Amsterdam, it attempts to motivate/provoke theoretical/political discussions. Xurban.net realizes site-specific installations with online components as well as work designed specifically for viewing on the Internet. Güven Incirlioğlu  and Hakan Topal founded this collective.  This group was included in the 8th International Istanbul Biennial

       

      Some alternative endeavors only have a virtual permanent space such as the Istanbul Contemporary Art Museum (IS.CaM), the first contemporary art museum in Istanbul.  This organization was established in 1998 with Genco Gulan as director, Marcus Graf as the main curator, and Deniz Aygun as the program director.  Even though this museum exits in a virtual space, it has organized several international projects.  In recent years it has begun an artist exchange program, “Ben Muzede Yaziyorum”, (I Live in a Museum).

      Artists have also collaborated to produce artwork. For example, in the 2003 collaborative low technology film entitled Road to Tate Modern, Şener Özmen and Erkan Ozgen create work that ironically depicts their marginal position of living and working in Diyarbakir. They portray a Don Quixote type figure that travels across the roughed terrain of Eastern Turkey searching for the route to the Tate Modern. In this video, they speak in Kurdish and later add English subtitles.  This work was included in the 9th International Istanbul Biennial.  In 2004, with Ahmet Ogut, he also made a Boyama Kitabi (Coloring Book) using a children’s magazine format, but showing paradoxical narrations in contemporary Turkey stemming from social and political situations reflecting violence in families, addiction on city streets, generation and cultural gaps. Young artists are also collaborating to produce work.    In 2006, Gozde Ilkin and Sirma Kekec worked with the German artist Susanne Kathrina Willand for the exhibition, Place, in Bremen, Germany.  For this installation, they stitched handkerchiefs embroidered with images relevant to Turkish culture on the outside and with images relevant to German culture on the inside of a portable tent.

      Residency Programs

       

      The recent importance given to international residency programs for artists and curators is related to the prevalence of travel in the globalized world. Everyone is constantly on the move.  Travel is a sign of prestige for the average citizen and for the artist. Residency programs not only give artists a chance to experience different places, interact with other artists, establish network possibilities, but also give them the opportunity to continue their individual research and practice by moving out of their ordinary life into a supported environment dedicated to artistic research.  In other words, they move into an artificial, semi-artificial experience mode.  

       

      Initiated in 2003, Istanbul Residency Program (IRP) housed in Platform Garanti offers four artist studios and two writer’s rooms. It is open to contemporary visual artists, critics and curators of contemporary art. Each residency lasts for a period of between three and six months. The program’s aim is to encourage international and regional collaborations in Turkey as well as increase opportunities for Turkish artists to participate in residency programs in other countries. In 2004 the American Center Foundation (ACF) offered its first grant to an artist from the region, Wael Shawky from Egypt who spent 6 months in Istanbul. During this time he created two new works and participated in the ‘Mediterraneans’ Exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Rome. La La Rascic from Bosnia/Sarajevo was selected for the next ACF residency program. Arriving in February of 2006, he also spent 6 months at IRP.  At the end of his stay, he exhibited his work, ‘That from a long way off look like flies’, in Platform’s gallery space. A grant from the European Cultural Foundation (ECF), awarded to Platform in 2004 allowed IRP to invite Nurullah Görhan and Yael Bartana. To obtain funds for these art related cross cultural exchange projects, IRP collaborates with numerous institutions in Spain, Belgium, Netherlands, Finland, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Italy, UK, and Germany.  Many Turkish artists have benefited from this program such as Serkan Ozkaya, Asli Cavusoglu, Can Altay, Tunc Ali Cam, Elmas Deniz, Hatice Guleryuz, Fatma Ciftci, YAMA, Oda Project, Ahmet Ogut, Gokce Suvari, Cevdet Erek, and Koken Ergun.

       

      Another important program, one of the earliest examples,  the Berlin Senatosu Bilim, Arastirma  ve Kultur Dairesi (The Berlin Scientific Senato, Research and Culture Division) began to give grants for Istanbul in 1988. Between 1988-1994 under the direction of Sezer Duru and Professor Harald Scmidt, this three-month grant was awarded to professionals in theater, literature, film and other branches of art. After 1994, the Istanbul grant program changed to cover only professionals in contemporary visual arts. Since that time, Beral Madra and the BM Contemporary Art Center has directed the program.  To be eligible for the grant, recipients must have lived in Berlin for at least two years and be German citizens.  Between 1994-1998 Beral has acted as curator to organize an exhibition and publish a catalog about Istanbul for twenty-three artists who have lived and worked in Istanbul.  All of the artists produced work about and for Istanbul.  Their work has been shown in the Goethe Institute Gallery, several public spaces, and other private galleries.  After participation in this program, both Erik Goengrich and Natascha Sadr Haghighian were invited to participate in Istanbul biennials.   Since 1994, twenty-nine German artists have lived and worked in Istanbul as a part of this program.  In 2005, Nezaket Ekici, a Turkish/German performance artist and student of Marina Abramovic, also participated in this program.

       

      Many Turkish artists have applied and been accepted to residency programs in Canada, the U.S.A. and other European countries.  For example, Gul Ilgaz attended the Banff Art Center in Alberta, Canada, in 2004.  While at this residency program, she researched public art and developed her Golyazi Project.  As well as being a public art event, the Golyazi Project also included a residency program.  During the summers of 2005 and 2006, ten international artists and ten Turkish artists lived together on the small island to produce artwork specifically for the village.  Maria Sezer worked with a local metal worker to construct a large sculpture, Balance (Denge) that referred to the subtle ecological balance of the surrounding lake.  Since the village depends on fishing as a livelihood, this sculpture served as a suitable symbol. 

      My personal experience was also at the Banff Art Center in Alberta, Canada.  In 2006, I was accepted to a two month thematic residency program entitled “Babel, Babble, Rabble” for artists, writers, curators, theorists, and other cultural producers to explore the relationship between language and art.   The aim of the residency program was to bring together a group of people interested in the relationship between language, words, writing, utterance and contemporary art.  Emphasis was placed on interdisciplinary participation including the use of letters, journals, interview, statements, criticism, theory, propositions and language-as-objects.  While at Banff, I had an opportunity to share and discuss my artistic practice with others interested in a similar type of research.  At the Open Studio, I shared my work with the public and participated in three group shows. Throughout the residency, artists continually shared, collaborated and made joint projects.

      Curatorial Residency programs have also been a fertile place for the establishment of collaboration.  For example, Adnan Yildiz and Ester Lu met in Stockholm in the Curatorlab/konstfack residency program two years ago.  Sharing similar views about curatorial theory, they formed a collaborative practice called ‘Good Gangsters’.   In their opinion, work coming out of joint endeavors belongs to each individually, but at the same time is an independent entity.  Because he bases his methodological approach on self-refection and introspection, Yildiz named his curatorial practice “Everyday Curating”.  For his practice, he uses a dialogue-based approach requiring interaction, discussion, and negotiation. Rather than fitting artist’s work into themed exhibitions, he aims to create an opportunity for interaction between artistic research and practice.  One outcome of their collaboration was the exhibition entitled "Good Gangsters in Town".  In this show, they experimented with the form/format of exhibitions, questioned the need for exhibitions, and explored ways to transform exhibitions through curatorial research. Yildiz launched "Everyday Curating" as a curatorial research project within “Good Gangsters in Town”.[36]

      Pseudo-Documentary Video Work

      In 2004, to obtain opinions about the state of new media in Turkey, I interviewed seven local curators. All the curators agreed that a large amount of Turkish video work is documentary or pseudo-documentary. In my opinion, the materialization of such work requires fieldwork, collaboration, and interaction that can be seen as art as dialogue. Photography and digital prints have also been used to document dialogue-based work.  For my 2007 Big Family Business project entitled “Lights” I used photography rather than video to make portraits of women working in local garment factories using German industrial sewing machines that my husband had sold. Nazan Azeri’s 2002 “Dus Roller” photography series of Beyoglu street dwellers dressed in designer clothes and the 2007 exhibitions by Pinar Yolacan of Afro-Brazlian women dressed in clothes fashioned from cow placenta in the style of Portuguese colonizers also comes to mind.  But, the use of video for this type of pseudo-documentary work is much more prevalent in Turkey. 

       

      While a documentary film aims to present facts about a person or event, the work presented here that I refer to as pseudo-documentary appears to document, but actually does something else.  In my opinion, it is the ‘something else’ that makes the work interesting.  Sometimes the artist incorporates a surprise element into a real life scene, something that does not belong.  Sometimes they make a reference to art history or use irony. Sometimes they tend towards the more poetic or aesthetic presentation.  Many times what appears to be a scene from daily life turns out to be staged or what seems to be manipulated turns out to be a readymade. Some work combines music with image while others use dialogue. Most Turkish artists use low technology cameras, but others hire professional teams. Some use multiple screens for presentation while others combine the videos with objects in installations. Some of the works require that the artists interact intensely with the subjects they record while others observe from afar. No matter what the intervention may be, I believe it is the use of these variations, this ‘something else’, that turns these pieces into artwork.


      All of the curators mentioned Kutluğ Ataman, an internationally known Turkish artist, as one of the most important artists working in this genre.  To mention only a few of his accomplishments, he participated in the 1997 5th International Istanbul Biennial, 1999 Venice Biennial, 2002 Sao Paulo Biennial, 2002 Documenta 11 in Kassel, the 2003 Tate Triennial, 2003 8th International Istanbul Biennial, and 2007 10th International Istanbul Biennial. Coming from a background in filmmaking, he makes hybrid work that brings together fictional film, documentary video, and even the genre of pornography. Over 27 hours of footage recorded with a hand-held camera was taken in by Ataman the bedroom of the 87-year old diva and painter, Semiha Berksoy.  After editing, the finished work entitled semiha b. unplugged showed an eight-hour monologue about Semiha Berksoy’s personal memories of the modernization of Turkey. For his video installation, Women who Wear Wigs, Kutluğ arranged four video projections side by side to show interviews he had made with a prostitute, a woman with cancer, a Moslem student (who would only allow her voice to be recorded), and a transvestite.  For his 2004 work entitled Kuba Ataman had to struggle to obtain entrance into the small shantytown neighborhood called Kuba outside of Istanbul.   For this work he interviewed and filmed forty residents who would only cooperate if he promised not to show their video portraits in Turkey.   In his video, Taniklik (Testimony) made in 2006, he searches for and found Kevser abla, an Armenian lady who worked in his home and told him stories as a little boy.  Suffering from loss of memory in her old age, she only vaguely recognizes the photographs he shows to her.


      Nil Yalter known as the first Turkish artist to make interactive artwork, has used her photography, documentation, computer, video and performances to communicate issues related to human rights and feminism. Having lived and worked in Paris since 1965, she made her first video about the female situation, The headless woman, in 1974.  To make this piece for almost an hour, she zoomed onto portions of her thigh and navel while writing continually expanding circles of spiraling words about feminism and female sexuality.  At the end of the film, her body begins to gyrate as in an erotic oriental dance.[37] 

      In 1980 she collaborated with Nicole Croiset, to make a performance artwork, Les Rituals (The Rituals). The artists communicate with each other using a closed circuit video as they sit on the floor in front of the others face seen on a television set.  In this basically visual piece, they use masks, mirrors, and screens, different cultural symbols, to explore issues about varying sexual and cultural identities.

      Nil, in her 1992 video piece, Circular Rites, mixes images of herself with those of protesting Arab women while she combines women’s voices with spoken texts.

      In her 2003 video work, Historie de Peau (The History of Skin), Yalter makes a map of her aging body. In contrast to the more erotic and sexual, The Headless Woman, made in her youth, this video zooms onto the crevices, wrinkles, scares and marks left on her epidermis throughout the years of her life.  While she fragments the surface of her skin, she also incorporates layers of images that convey social and historical meaning.  By manipulating symbols, she presents an autobiographical narrative while exploring the stigmatization of every female. [38]


      In addition to being included in major international exhibitions, Yalter has also shown her work in Turkey. Simultaneous to her 1998 show, “Gocebe Dunya”, (Nomad World) at Aksanat, she conducted a Photoshop workshop and gave one-on-one lessons to anyone coming into the studio.  As one of the participants, this was my first exposure to the use of this software that later became an important tool in my own work. In 2006, “Su Gurbetcilik Zor Zanat Zor-2” (Being an immigrant is a difficult craft-2), a retrospective show of her videos work from 1974 to 1992, took place at the France Cultural Center.  In the fall of 2008, Nil’s work will be included in the show, “Suyun Bir Arada Tuttugu” exhibition at the Istanbul Modern Museum.

       

       

      In his 2003 work We’re Papermen Can Altay made a type of video diary of unofficial garbage collectors in Ankara.  These men rummage through garbage cans throughout the city to collect, organize according to type and sell garbage. Even though this is technically illegal, since it serves to re-cycle materials, authorities accept the practice. Altay’s work has been shown in the 8th International Istanbul Biennial.

       

      Esra Ersen, who comes from a background in fine arts, uses the language of documentary to poetically present social situations. She participated in the 1995 4th International Istanbul Biennial, 2002 Manifesta 4 in Frankfurt, the 2003 8th International Istanbul Biennial, and showed work in 2003 at the Walker Art Center in the USA. For the video work Brothers and Sisters, she gained the trust of illegal immigrants living in Istanbul and taped them in their natural surroundings.   For the Turkish spectator who is used to thinking of the Turk as the migrant worker abroad, it was interesting to be reminded of the numerous African, Bulgarian, Moldavian illegal workers living in Turkey.  Realizing that these illegal workers are more marginal than the Turkish workers in Europe who do have a legal status.

       

      Another artist using narrative in his videos, Fikret Atay, made the 2003 film Rebels of the dance showing street children taking shelter and dancing to keep warm in a bank-o-matic located in Eastern Turkey in a city called Batman.   This work was included in the 8th International Istanbul Biennial while his 2004 video work, Tinica, was included in the 10th International Istanbul Biennial. Again in Batman, this film shows a teenaged boy sitting on a hill overlooking urban sprawl beating out a rhythm on old cans before kicking them down the hill into a pile of dirt. Both of these videos seem random. Both seem to be spontaneous. Both seem to be documentation.  But, are they? 

       

      After the birth of her first child, Canan Şenol, compared her post-natal home confinement in a modern apartment building to that of a confined prisoner.  During this period of her life in 2000, she made a pseudo-documentary piece entitled One Glass of Warm Sugar Water (Bir Bardak sicak sekerli su) about the inmates of Turkish prisons that were conducting a hunger strike against the use of single cell, increased surveillance new prison units that would replace the traditional community-type prisons.  For this poetic work, Şenol interviewed the strikers and arranged images of these interviewees in a rotating four-cell grid with images of their only nourishment: sugar cubes, sugared water, and sponges for wetting their lips.


      Another young artist from Eastern Turkey, Halil Altindere, who participated in the 1997 5th and the 9th International Istanbul Biennial, works not only as an artist, but also as an artist/curator. Perhaps coming from a marginal culture makes him particularly sensitive to the various sub-cultures living in the city of Istanbul.  His film, Who are you looking at? while appearing to be spontaneous, is actually staged. To obtain the atmosphere of aggression, he asked various members of Istanbul sub-cultures who live in the city center to scream at and attack his camera.  In this manner, he created a fictional narrative that resembles a documentary video.   For his 2005 video, Miss Turkey, Altindere returns to Istiklal Caddesi.  Again the video seems to be a documentation of just another day in this area when a beauty queen passes by on a bike or a businessman starts to rap dance.  Amazingly the pedestrians only momentarily notice and simply accept these outbursts as normal.  No one realizes that an art piece is being made. 

       

      Neriman Polat takes photographs from her childhood puts them into the art context, documents tourists on the beaches of Turkey, arranges a photographs into series to change their meaning.  These are not staged or manipulated but given a new meaning through context, association, and arrangement.   In her video work she follows a similar route and  again tapes events she stumbles upon such as a talk show on television, a blind man playing music beside the sea or a nightclub. Sometimes her work appears to be a documentation of a two women chatting in a restaurant, roaming around the city, or getting ready to commit suicide, but turn out to be staged.  In all of them she captures an atmosphere and presents a viewpoint of existence in Istanbul.  As part of an installation for the 2007 “Sahipinden Manzarali” (From Owner with View) exhibition, she inluded an old television set showing a video entitled Kafam sikar giderim (I’ll blow off my head and go), depicting a woman pacing back and forth while occasionally pulling the trigger of a gun aimed at her head.  In the background, a woman singing a song by Ahmet Kaya can be heard. Everything is staged, but it all seems real.  It all seems like a documentation.

      Gülsün Karamustafa, who participated in both the 1992 2nd and 1995 4th International Istanbul Biennial, had worked in the 1980s and early 90s as an art director and film maker as well as a painter.   Known particularly for her interest in issues related to migration, the kitsch life style in Turkey, and cultural identity, she made her first art film in the late 1990s. In her short film entitled Men Crying she used three male professional actors who had been very famous in 1970 Turkish cinema to act out her scenario depicting Turkish men’s methods of showing emotion.   Filmed in black and white, this film seems to take on the characteristics of a melodramatic 1970 film, but it still captures a quality of timelessness.[39]  In Making of the Wall from 2003, three women who were imprisoned after the military coup of 1971 talk of their experiences that included torture, but also strong friendship ties among the inmates. 

       

      In his 2007 video named, Last minute talks/Son Dakika Konusmalari, Denizhan Özer emphasized the tragedy of losing ones mother langue. In the video, his children meet his grandmother who is 100 years old and only speaks Lazca.  A woman who had never left Hopa a small village on the Black Sea in Turkey can not communicate with her great grand children who speak only Turkish and perhaps a bit of English.  This video works not only emphasizes dialogue, but also the impossibility of dialogue in the contemporary world. 

       

      Yasemin Özcan Kaya’s video Elmasli Apartman documents Zekiye Hanim and Madam Ida reminiscing about their lives in the Galata area of Istanbul.  The video presents memories about this region of Istanbul that has served as a home to numerous ethnic groups. With gentrification, this area is undergoing rapid change.

        

      Sinasi Gunes, while being proliferate as a video maker, also organizes virtual events such as his mail art website, as well as real-time festivals involving intense interaction and collaboration between artists.  One of his highly interesting 2005 video works, The Middle of the Bridge, shows an animated film of a man jumping off the Bosphorus Bridge. In the video, he includes a video showing a man jumping off a low step to show how the animation was staged.

       

      Selda Asal is another artist who works in this genre.  For her 2008 piece, Hard to Die/Olmek Zor she visited a series of Women’s Shelters (Kadin Siginma Evi).  In the videos, we did not show the women in their entirety, only a hand or a foot, nothing that could identify the person who was still in hiding from her past.  These  women have been harassed  and tortured.  Most had left their homes and taken on new identities in order to survive.  We learn more about their stories through their drawings that also flow through the film.

      Another piece from 2005 entitled Restore Hope” required Asal to work with youths, many of whom were drug addicts, in the Bakirkoy Psychiatrc Clinic and street children of Istanbul.  In this work, she also encouraged the participants to draw their inner worlds.

       

      Ferhat Özgür, in his 2006 video called Monsieur! This is Ankara Castle, taped children guiding tourists around the Ankara Castle. Children spoke in an incomprehensible English recitation of a text they had memorized.  In exchange for this scrambled information, they expected to receive 1 New Turkish Lira.  In the video, it was obvious that the children did not understand anything they were saying.  Later in the video, a retired history teacher explained the original text in a personal commentary.

      Another of Ferhat’s pseudo-documentary films was included in the 10th International Istanbul Biennial.  In 2005, he videoed the Maltepe Market in Ankara, an area initially named the Russian Bazaar because in the 1990s ex-communist country citizens would sell their goods here. During this documentation, he was told that this market would be closed by the municipality to make room for a modern shopping center. In 2007 when he revisited the area, he found just a few machines.

      Genco Gulan, studied at the New School in New York and teaches computer design at Yedi Tepe University. In his 2003 video piece called Tele-rugby he filmed a swim team playing rugby underwater with a TV monitor as the ball. He made this piece that shows a power struggle in which players try to both capture and get rid of the screen, to symbolize his love/hate relationship with media. [40] In his 2006 film, Tekrar Musa, Genco films people walking alone, in groups, and couples hand-in-hand or kissing walking in the sea over the sunken city of Myndos. While some of Genco’s videos may carry some element of documentation, that is not his aim.  They tend to be more poetic, ironic, metaphorical and nearer to performance.

      During the 10th International Istanbul Biennial, Ali Kazma presented an installation consisting of four videos, Ceramist Studio (2007), Clock Master (2006), Brain Surgeon (2006), and Slaughterhouse (2007).  In these films, he did not chose work places using informal labor and he did not show exploitation or poor working conditions. Jean Factory (2008) emphasizes the detail and craftsmanship used to produce the seemingly simple jean hanging in shops around the world.  Every crease, every wrinkle, every gradation of color is highly thought out and calculated. In his seemingly obsessive exploration of contemporary human production and activity, he also made Rolling Mills (2007), showing a steel factory and Household Goods Factory (2008), a film about a factory in Italy owned by Alessi.   This series of films cannot be seen as documentary and socioeconomic issues surface only indirectly. The films consist of a series of close-ups, fragments, and glances at sophisticated use of skills.  While highly sophisticated technology is present, the skilled hand is still important.  In his videos, the gruesome becomes beautiful and the mundane becomes complicated. While viewing highly skilled workers in different contemporary environments, we are reminded of the subtle aesthetic and technical skills required to produce a contemporary high quality work of art. All require dexterity of mind/hand/eye, and ability for cutting/sewing/reshaping, to make a highly refined finished product, a masterpiece.  All the places and activities chosen share almost allusive similarities even though they are totally unique.


      Ipek Duben is another artist who makes political comments using the pseudo-documentary format. In 2003, Ipek created a series of thirty postcards by the juxtaposition of pictures of Turkish people during their daily lives with comments made by Europeans about Turks, What is a Turk?, 2003.


      For her video piece entitled What is a Turk?, 2005, Europeans, Americans, Australians and others who have resided in Istanbul for various lengths of time chose and commented on postcards to send to their friends and family back home. 

       

      In my work, I have frequently used the pseudo-documentary format but for only one piece have I collaborated with another artist.  In 2005 Ipek Duben and I, Nancy Atakan, read Zygmunt Bauman’s book Wasted Lives and created a text from this reading.  For the film, Thinking Garbage, we videoed people leading their normal lives in the Galata neighborhood.  Between 1997 and 1998, I spent a year, asking everyone I met whose native language was neither Turkish nor English to write their word for this substance in my notebook and to speak the sound for it into my tape recorder.  I used these materials to make an animated film, Those Who Say Tea and Those Who Say Cay.  For my 1999 video entitled Faltasi I staged a tea party for fifteen women and read their fortunes.  Flow of Live emerged from interviews with mothers, nurses, and grandmothers in the maternity section of the Mersin Government Hospital.  My 2004 digital video entitled Grandmother’s Lace was based on two years of research that I had done on my mother-in-law’s family who were among the 15,000 Sabbetaic people who moved to Istanbul from Greece in 1924. In my ironic pseudo-news report sequence entitled Taxi Driver’s News from 2001, I recited news that I had collected from conversations with Istanbul taxi drivers. For the 2002 film Lives Within Lifetimes I interviewed people who had made diverse life choices and changes. This is a Work of Art from 2004 was made from portions of interviews with curators who were speaking about Turkish artist’s tendency to make pseudo-documentary work.

       

      Conclusion

       

      Whether or not a major leap has occurred in the quality and amount of participatory artwork in Turkey as I had predicted, over the past ten years the Turkish art world has prospered and grown.  Access to rapid Internet allows Turkish artists and art students instant access to information about local and international artists and art events.

       

      Emerging young and established Turkish artists have been invited to participate in international exhibitions and residency programs. Participation in residency programs has given access to international art networks and created opportunities for international collaboration. Not only do Turkish artists and curators travel abroad, but also, non-Turkish curators and artists are spending extended amounts of time in Istanbul.

       

      In addition to this, the International Istanbul Biennials have continued to give access to examples of cutting edge international art. More importantly, most Turkish artists invited to show in these biennials have gained acceptance to the international art circuit.  On the local scene, four art museums have been founded, three art fairs have been organized, and several new university art faculties have been opened. With these developments, the number of young well-trained artists, curators, organizers and art experts of all kinds has increased. In addition, not only has the art audience become larger, but it has also become more aware and interested in contemporary art. These types of events along with the strong international interest in Turkish artists makes me think that, in fact, Istanbul is no longer on the periphery of the world art scene, but has become a dynamic art center, in ways more exciting than any major European or American city.

        

      I believe the closing of the Borusan Art Center to be a significant loss to the contemporary art scene in Istanbul because it offered a small window to international art.  To mention just a few important events: “Fluxus a collection of Inge Baecker Gallery” took place, in September of 1999; Joseph Kosuth’s work was introduced to Turkey in a show entitled “Konuklar ve Yabancilar: Rossini Turkiye’de” (Guests and Foreigners: Rossini in Turkey); in March of 2000, “Beuys, Desenler Nesneler Baskilar (Beuys, Drawings Objects Prints) opened; Sophia Calle’s work was included in the 2004 “Silent Screams, Difficult Dreams” (Sessiz Cigliklar, Karmasik Ruyalar) exhibition; and Rebecca Horn’s work was shown in October, 2004.   Between 1998 and 2000, “Istanbul Gidis-Donus” (Istanbul Roundtrip), “Istanbul Gidis-Donus II”, “Istanbul Gidis-Donus III” exposed local spectators to several Turkish artists working abroad such as Fatih Aydogdu, Cem Aydogan, Engin Cavusoglu, Melek Mazici, Sukran Moral, Sukran Aziz, Osman Dinc, Azade Koker, Ahmet Oran, Canan Tolon, Ipek Duben, and Zafer and Barbara Baran.  Likewise, beginning in 1998, Borusan’s annual exhibitions for young artists “Yeni Onerler/Yeni Onemeler”, played an integral role in allowing access to the artworld for new art school graduates.

       

      The residency programs and collaborative work at Garanti Plaform have served and continue to serve as a model for both international and local art endeavors. Under the direction of Vasif Kortun, some of the important exhibitions at Proje 4L were “Yerlesmek” (Becoming a Place), 2001; “Yeniden Bak” (Look Again) 2001; “Plajin Altinda: Kaldirim Taslari (Under the Beach: The Pavement) 2002; and Halil Altindere’s “I’m Too Sad to Kill You/Seni Oldurecegim Icin Cok Uzgunum” in 2003. Many artists featured in these exhibitions such as Sener Ozmen, Ahmet Ogut, and Serkan Ozkaya have become known internationally. Likewise, many artists who showed in the self-organized exhibitions “Arada”, 1997; “Ardarda”, 1998; “Arada-99”, 1999; “Yerli Mali” 2000; "Yurttan Sesler”, 2001; and “Aileye Mahsustur”, 2003, also moved into the international scene.  For instance, to just mention a few Neriman Polat participated in the 1999 6th International Istanbul Biennial, Taner Ceylan in the 2003 8th International Istanbul Biennial, Extramucadele in the 2007 10th International Istanbul Biennial.  Gul Ilgaz and Neriman Polat were invited to the 2005 51st Venice Biennial.

       

      Furthermore, Turkish artists featured in this book continue to show abroad and in Turkey.  Ayse Erkmen, Fusun Onur, Gulsun Karamustafa and Hale Tenger have shown continuously abroad, but of more importance is the emphasis given to them this year by YapiKredi.  Not only did they each have a one woman show in the Kazim Taskent Yapi Kredi Gallery, but also Yapi Kredi Publications printed books for each:  Gulsun Karamustafa My Roses My Reveries (Gullerim Tahayyullerim); Hale Tenger Stranger Within (IcerdekiYabanci); AyseErkmen)>Ucucu</=simdi=(temporary=contemporary); Fusun Onur Dikkatli Gozler Icin (For Careful Eyes). I hope that Kutlug Ataman’s book entitled Sen Zaten Kendini Anlat! (You Tell Me About Yourself Anyway!) will be followed by a one-man exhibition. The exhibition “Modernity and Beyond” that opened at Santralistanbul in 2007 included work by STT and many of the Turkish artists and artists groups emphasized in this book.

       

      Since 2000, Zeynep Rona’s TurkiyeSanatyilligi_ has proven indispensable for the local art researcher; likewise, since 1999, Halil Altindere’s annual publication, Art-ist Guncel Sant Seckisi, has given access to important writings on art and his book User’ Manual Contemporary Art in Turkey 1986-2006 serves as an important reference for the local and international contemporary art audience.  It is significant that in 1999 art-ist Gucel Sanat Seckisi Altindere wrote about STT; in art-ist Gucel Sanat Seckisi 5 Pelin Tan wrote about the AES Group; that Altindere dedicated art-ist Guncel sanat seckisi 7 entirely to the artist group IRWIN.

       

      Sarkis continues to enliven the local art scene with interactive projects. For example, n April of 2005 he opened the show “Bir Kilmetre Tasi” (A Milestone) at Aksanat in Beyoglu.  On the first floor was the neon sign Sarkis Films 1997-2004 acompanied by a text by Ali Akay, a text by Sarkis and rose petals; on the next floor he included eleven photographs chosen from the history of cinema with eleven outfits for children (The visiting children could wear the clothes and participate in Zeynep Tanbay’s dance workshop); the next floor was used to show his films, give conferences, and concerts; while the next floor housed a contemporary art workshop for children called “Su icinde suluboya atolyesi; between the floors were signs on the wall with words by Gilles Deleuze; listening to concerts and drinking coffee was also a part of this exhibition. He also participated in the 10th International Istanbul Biennial with a special project.

       

      In 2007, for the first time, Turkey had its own pavilion in the 52nd Venice Biennial and it has become a well-accepted fact that the Istanbul International Biennial is one of the most important events in the international art scene.  Numerous exhibitions focusing on Istanbul have taken place in Europe and others are being planned. Since Istanbul is to be the theme of the Frankfurt Book Fair in the Fall of 2008, many local institutions are planning related events.  For instance, Garanti Gallery is planning a show entitled “Becoming Istanbul” to be held at the Deutsches Architectumuseum. Boundaries are expanding internally as well as externally.  Some important contemporary art exhibitions have taken place outside of Istanbul while other exhibitions have brought artists living in smaller cities to Istanbul. Just to mention two, Vasif Kostun curated “Genc Sanat-3 in Ankara in 2000. Beral Madra curated the show “Sifre/Password:Istanbul” at the Diyarbakir Art Center in 2002. The exhibition, “Free Kick” (Serbest Vurus) was shown at Antrepo along side the Hafriyat exhibition during the 9th International Istanbul Biennial in 2005. The curator, Halil Altindere brought artists from different regions and social backgrounds into one space. By exhibiting work by artists from Iskenderum, Denizli, Kiziltepe, Ankara, Diyarbakir, Amasya, Balikesir, Urfa and Mardin side-by-side with Istanbul artists, Altindere questioned the closed networks of the contemporary art world and opened up possibilities for many young artists. When periphery areas of Istanbul are exposed to contemporary art beginning in the fall of 2008 with the “Tasinabilir Sanat Projesi” (Transportable Art Project) sponsored by 2010 Istanbul European Cultural Center, the move away from showing artwork only in the centrally located art gallery district on the European side of Istanbul will perhaps bring further expansion of accepted boundaries.

       

      Published in Izmir , August 2008



      [1]Joseph Kosuth, "Art After Philosophy", Joseph Kosuth, Art After Philosophy and After, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991, p. 25

      [2] “The Curator’s Moment”, Michael Brenson, p. 64, Zoyar Kocar and Simon Leung, Theory in Contemporary Art since 1985, Blackwell Publishing, Ma, USA, 2005.

       

      [3] Nicolas Boournaud, Iliskisel estetik, ceviren Saadet Ozen, Baglam Yayimlari, Istanbul, 2005

      [4] Editor Claire Bishop, Documents of Contemporary Art, Participation, Whitechapel and the MIT press, 2006

      [5] www.artangel.org.uk

      [6] www.arcspace.com

      [7] www.wochenklausur.at/projekte

       

       

      [8] “Conversation Pieces, The Role of Dialogue in Socially-Engaged Art”, Gran Kester  p. 83-84. Zoyar Kocar and Simon Leung, Theory in Contemporary Art since 1985, Blackwell Publishing, Ma, USA, 2005.

       

       

      [9] www.dexigner.com

      [11] Lumacom is a video technology that allows moving images to be viewed at night in a large format from a long distance.

      [12] http://www.yama.com.tr

       

      [13] www.exociti.org/core.htm

      [14] http://www.hazavuzu.com

      [15] http://www.galataperform.com

      [16] www.garanatiplatformenglish.blogspot.com

      [17] www.odaprojesi.org

      [18] Barbara Heinrich My Roses My Reveries Gulsun Karamustafa, Yapi Kredi Kultur Sanat Yayincilik ticaret ve SAnayii A.S., 2007

      [19] http://07.performa-arts.org/artists.php?id=12&detail=true

      [20] www.apartmentproject.com

       

      [21] www.b-a-s.info

      [22] http://www.galataperform.com

      [23] http://www.art-hafriyat.com/

      [24] www.imc5533.blogspot.com

      [25] www.pist.org.tr

       

      [26] www.mentalklinik.com

      [27] http://www.ura-project.org/

      [28] www.masaprojesi.com

      [29] http://altiaylik.blogspot.com/

      [30] www.bigfamilybusiness.net

      [31] http://www.nomad-tv.net/

       

      [32] www.videoist.org

      [33] www.berlinerpool.de

      [34] http://www.myspace.com/atilkunst

      [36] www.goodgangsters.com

      [37] Revolutions: Contemporary Video Practices, Michael Renov and Erika Suderburg, p. 137, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1995.

       

      [38] www.panoplie.org/skinstory

      [39] Interview with Gülsün Karamustafa, January 9, 2004.

      [40] Interview with Genco Gulan, Istanbul, Turkey, October 29, 2003.